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By Alexander of Aphrodisias, R.W. Sharples

Alexander of Aphrodisias - the major old commentator on Aristotle - bargains interpretations to do with ethical advantage, the standards for judging activities voluntary, etc. Translation of textual content with observation and notes

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1, p. 360), and it is not clear from the sequel how this is to the point. Neither, admittedly, is it clear from the sequel why the fact that virtues do not exist independently of their possessors should be put in terms of their not coming to be independently. 111 As often, the title relates to the opening section of the Problem rather than to 35 131,1 5 10 15 40 20 25 30 Problem 11 both the rational and the irrational; and 'wickedness' does not do so because some is by excess and some by deficiency.

IV] It is distress dupe}, not pain (ponos) that is opposite to pleasure; for pain indicates a bodily affliction62 and a [particular sort] of distress, but not distress without qualification. Distress, in the general 35 sense, means a certain disposition of the soul, whether it supervenes on an affliction of the body or some disposition of the soul;63 just as 59 Or 'of these creatures'; but this is less to the point, and for pleasures of activities cf. P. Eth. 17137,35-6. 60 That is, the name applies, but not the proper definition.

And it is for this reason that the virtues are better than us; for indeed our end consists in the presence and acquisition of the virtues. 11. 111 'Living creature' does not have several senses112 because it includes 110 So Bruns. Dr Kenny suggests keeping the MSS text and interpreting 'the virtues do not [strictly speaking] come to be'; but this would seem to indicate a contrast between things that go through a process of coming to be and those that just are not and then are (cf. Aristotle Metaph.

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